Fertility

TOPIC

Fertility

Fertility

In Italy the fertility rate is one of the lowest in Europe (1.3 children on average per woman), significantly below the population maintenance rate (2.1). This phenomenon, if not corrected, in the future could lead to the unsustainability of our welfare system.

Fertility, which expresses the ability of women and men to reproduce, is strongly influenced by age. In particular, for women whose reproductive cells, oocytes, decrease in number over time (starting from the age of 32) and become less efficient, with a greater probability of manifesting genetic problems. In fact, the main cause of female infertility is precisely advanced maternal age. Men have the ability to produce sperm throughout life, but their number, concentration and quality worsen after age 40 with an increase in genetic anomalies.

It is estimated that in Italy about 15% of couples are infertile. Infertility canarise in women and men equally. Among the causes there are often pathologies that are preventable and, in any case, easily treatable if dealt with promptly. Information is therefore the cornerstone of primary prevention.

The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS, the National Institute of Health in Italy) carries out studies on reproductive health and fertility issues and promotes information campaigns for the population. Furthermore, it coordinates training activities for health workers on fertility preservation techniques in specific segments of the population. Finally, on the basis of the data collected through the National Medically Assisted Procreation Register (Registro nazionale procreazione medicalmente assistita, PMA), the ISS annually prepares a report to the Minister of Health with an epidemiological evaluation on PMA techniques to evaluate its efficacy and safety in the treatment of infertility.



Assisted reproductive technology

Medically assisted procreation (Procreazione Medicalmente Assistita, PMA) include both simpler techniques such as intrauterine insemination (the introduction of seminal fluid into the uterine cavity), and more complex techniques, where insemination and fertilization of the oocyte occurs outside the body, and then the developed embryo is transferred to the uterus.

These techniques can be applied in "fresh" cycles if both oocyte and non-cryopreserved or "thawing" embryos are used. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS, the National Institute of Health in Italy) collects data on centers authorized to apply PMA techniques on their efficacy and safety and outcome.


Topics

Fertility Tecniche di Procreazione Medicalmente Assistita Salute riproduttiva Infertilità: un problema di coppia