TEMA

Prevenzione e promozione della salute

Prevenzione e promozione della salute

Tantissimi studi scientifici hanno dimostrato l'importanza della prevenzione e della promozione della salute per ridurre l'incidenza delle malattie e la mortalità e di conseguenza i costi per il Servizio sanitario nazionale (SSN) e per la società ma anche per favorire il mantenimento del benessere e della qualità della vita.

Malattie come il diabete di tipo 2, alcuni tipi di tumori e di demenze si possono in parte prevenire. Quasi l'80% dei casi di malattie cardiache e gli ictus possono essere evitabili se le persone sono disposte a modificare il proprio stile di vita. In una moderna concezione di salute la sua promozione e la prevenzione devono essere incentrate su azioni congiunte di vari settori della società, principalmente sui fattori di rischio comportamentali modificabili e sui determinanti di salute sociali, economici e ambientali, senza dimenticare l'importanza della diagnosi precoce, il ruolo cruciale delle vaccinazioni e il contrasto alle disuguaglianze.

In questo ambito, in accordo con le politiche promosse da agenzie internazionali come l'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità (OMS), adottate dalle normative nazionali, le attività strategiche dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) si ispirano ai principi cardine del potenziamento delle capacità delle persone di fare scelte responsabili per il proprio benessere. In questa visione la prevenzione e la promozione della salute abbracciano tutte le fasi della vita e considerano la salute non più responsabilità del solo SSN.

A tal fine l'ISS raccoglie dati ed effettua ricerche su stili di vita e comportamenti che possono avere effetti sulla salute, studia e promuove modelli di intervento, supporta i Ministeri e le Regioni nelle attività di prevenzione delle malattie e promozione della salute, collabora con altre istituzioni nazionali e internazionali.


null Mental health at school: the European Project Well-School-Tech


Adolescence and pre-adolescence are crucial moments for the promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental disorders, taking into account that up 50% of common mental disorders have their onset in adolescence, around 14 years of age.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that, worldwide, up to 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a problem of emotional development or behaviour and one out of eight suffer from a mental disorder.
The project 'Well-School-Tech' supported by the Erasmus+ Programme for school education of the European Community, aimed to provide secondary school students the appropriate skills to monitor and manage their level of mental well-being, through the development of a pedagogical tool that was used as a basis of good practices and expertise in the field of mental well-being exchanged among the partnership. Partners shared knowledge concerning mental well-being management in school as well as strategies to involve in the best way all the actors that play an important role in the mental well-being of students, i.e. teachers and family members.
Project objectives were: 1) to exchange good practices for mental well-being management in the school context, in order to collect methodologies aimed at the students’ well-being with the direct support of the actors involved in the well-being and learning process of students i.e. teachers and parents; 2) to provide students with tools to manage mental well-being, improve communication skills, increase self awareness and problem solving abilities; 3) to produce high quality resources for professionals and improve their competencies to deal with diversified groups of students, with the use of new technologies and learner-centred pedagogical approaches.

With the active participation of students, the pedagogical resources collected among the partnership were adapted and transferred to multimedia tools (website, videos, apps), available in 5 European languages, in order to have an innovative and more attractive approach with the target group and cater their needs. The analysis carried out in the first phase of the project helped to identify the key needs of students while the exchange of good practices facilitated a more efficient strategy to address target groups’ well-being needs. These results provided a ground on which build the educational resources and adapt the programme. The training activities targeting teachers helped the first target group to better understand well-being needs of students, the best approaches to operate within school settings and guarantee the well-being of their learners and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in educational contexts. Teachers delivered focus groups with students in order to identify the most appropriate communication methods for their age group and develop multimedia material.

The pilot course together with the multimedia resources based on the manual increased students’ psychological well-being and quality of life, thus fostering a healthy environment for teaching and learning.
The activities foreseen in the project produced the following results: - improved learner-centered resources for well-being management in the school context; - improved competencies of teachers/educators in managing mental well-being in school settings by using different approaches and ICT-based methodologies, - increased ability of secondary school students to manage their mental well-being.

The Partnership
P1 - VIKO - Vilniaus Kolegija (Lithuania)
P2 - Promimpresa Srl (Italy)
P3 - Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italy)
P4 - Europa Training (United Kingdom)
P5 - ULO - University of Lodz (Poland)
P6 - ECQ Ltd. - European Center for Quality (Bulgaria)


Per info
Antonella Gigantesco, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Centro di Riferimento per le Scienze Comportamentali e la Salute Mentale
antonella.gigantesco@iss.it